The Clay Cylinder

Iran's Modern Constitution


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Clay Cylinder


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The clay cylinder:  inscribed in ancient writing with an account by Cyrus the Great, king of Iran (Persia) (559-530 BC) of his conquest of Babylon in 539 BC and capture of Nabonidus, the last Babylonian king. Length of this cylinder is 22.86 Centimeter (Approximately. 10 Inches)

Cyrus cylinder is story of historic achievement of King of King with the aid of Marduk, the principal god of the city of Babylon. Cyrus The Great presented himself not as a conqueror, but a liberator and the legitimate successor to the crown. He took the title of "King of Babylon and King of the Land". Cyrus had no thought of forcing conquered people into a single mould, and had the wisdom to leave unchanged the institution of each kingdom he attached to the Persian Crown. In 537 BC he allowed several thousands of prisoners to Babylon and return to Palestine.

Cyrus then describes measures of relief he brought to the populace of the city, and tells how he returned a number of images of gods, which Nabonidus had collected in Babylon, to their proper temples throughout Mesopotamia and western Iran. At the same time he arranged for the restoration of these temples, and organized the return to their homelands of a number of people who had been held in Babylonia by the Babylonian kings. Although the Jews are not mentioned in this document, their return to Palestine following their deportation by Nebuchadnezzar II, was part of this policy.

Few rulers in ancient history have earned equivalent of the fame and respect accorded to Cyrus the Great. He was founder of an Persian (Aryan) Empire 2,5OO years ago. The cuneiform writing on the cylinder is one of the important sources for the history of discovered during excavations at Babylon which Cyrus entered in 539 B.C.

This cylinder has been described as the 'first charter of human rights',

"I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of the land of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters, son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Anshan, progeny of an unending royal line, whose rule Bel and Nabu cherish, whose kingship they desire for their hearts' pleasures.

When I, well-disposed, entered Babylon, I established the seat of government in the royal palace amidst jubilation and rejoicing. Marduk, the great God, caused the big-hearted inhabitants of Babylon I sought daily to worship him. My numerous troops moved about undisturbed in the midst of Babylon.

I did not allow any to terrorize the land of Sumer and Akkad. I kept in view the needs of Babylon and all its sanctuaries to promote their well-being. The citizens of Babylon... I lifted their unbecoming yoke. Their dilapidated dwellings I restored. I put an end to their misfortunes.

The cuneiform writing on the cylinder sets a series of rules that became base of human right declaration is as follow:





[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]-ni-Su

[. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] his troops

.....لشکريان او


[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]-ki-ib-ra-tim

[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] quarters of the world

 ...همه جهان ..


[. . . ]-ka gal ma tu-u i S -Sak-na a-na e-nu-tu ma-ti- ٹu

[ . . . ] a weakling was established as ruler over his land

... مرد ناشايستی به فرمانروائی کشورش رسيده بود.


Si-[ . . . . . . . . . . ta-am]-Si-li ْ- Sa-aS-ki-na si-ru-Š u-un

and [ . . . . . ] a similar one he appointed over them,

 و ... شخص همانندی را به فرمانروائی آنان گماشته بود

ta-am-Si-li ة-sag-ila i-te-[. . . . . . -ti]m a-na Uriki ù si-it-ta-tim ma-ha-za

like Esagila he made [ . . . ] to Ur and the rest of the cities,

او  همانند اساگيلا ... معبدی درست کرد تا "اور" و بقيه شهر ها 

pa-ra-as la si-ma-a-ti- Su-nu ta-[ . . . . . l]i û-mi- ٹل-am-ma id-di-ni-ib-bu-ub ù ana na-ak-ri-tim

a command dishonoring them [ . . . . . ] he planned daily and in enmity,

او فرمان سرپيچی داد... روزانه به ايجاد دشمنی دست يازيد.

sat-tuk-ku ù-Sab-ti-li ْ-ad-[di . . . . . . ] -tak-ka-an ki-rib ma-ha-zi pa-la-ha iluMarduk Sar ilâni [ٹل]-qi- Se a-Su-uS- Su

he caused the daily offering to cease; he appointed [ . . . ] he established within the city. The worship of Marduk, king of the gods [ . . . ]

.... او آئين های کهن را از ميان برد و چيز های ساختگی جای آن گذاشت. او نيايش "مردوک" شاه خدایان را منسوخ نمود.  

li-mu-ut-ti ali Su [i-te]-ni-ip-pu-uS &ucirc-mi- ٹل-am-ma na-[. . . . niŠe ] i-na ab-Sa-a-ni la ta-ap-S ْ-ْh -tim ْ-hal-li-iq kul-lat-si-in

he showed hostility toward his city daily
[ . . . ] his people; he brought all of them to ruin through servitude without rest.

او کارهای ناشايست را رواج داد... هر روز کار هائی نا پسند ميکرد. خشونت و بد کرداری. او کار های روزمره را دشوار ساخت.


a-na ta-zi-im-ti-Ši-na iluEllil lililani iz-zi-iŠ i-gu-ug-ma [ . . . ] ki-su-ْr-Šْ-un ilâni a- Si-ib lib-bi-Š ْ-nu i-zi-bu ad-ma-an- -un

On account of their complaints, the lords of the gods became furiously angry and left their land; the gods, who dwelt among them, left their homes,

 يکی از موارد شکايت مردم اين بود که بديل  اعمال ناشايست او، خدايان آنها خشمگين شده و آبادی را ترک نموده بودند اندوه و غم را در شهر ها پراکند.


i-na ug-ga-ti S- Se-ri-bi a-na ki-rib Babili ilu Marduk ti-[ . . . . ] li-sa-ah-ra a-na nap-har da-لd-mi ٹل in-na-du-ْSْ-bat-su-un

in anger over his bringing into Babylon. Marduk [ . . . ] to all the dwelling places, which had become ruins,

مردم بابل بخشم آمده و از پرستش "مردوک" خدای بزرگ روی برگرداندند. و شهر های آنان نابود شده بود . او مردم را به سختی معاش دچار کرد. هرروز به شيوه ای ساکنان شهر را آزار ميداد. او با کار های خشن خود مردم را نابود ميکرد... همه مردم را.


ù niŠe mât sْ-me-ri ù Ak-ka-dikis a i-mu-ْ ٹa-lam-ta-as ْ-sa-ah-hi-ir ka- [ . . . . ]- s ir-ta-Š i ta-a-a-ra kul-lat ma-ta-a-ta ka-li- ٹi-na i-h i-it ib-ri-e-Šu

and the people of Sumer and Akkad, who were like corpses [ . . . . ] he turned and granted mercy. In all lands everywhere

و مردم سومر و آکاد به مردگانی مبدل شده بودند .... او در اين شهر ها بخشودگی را رواج داد و در تمام سر زمين های ديگر به همچنين

iŠ-te-'-e-ma ma-al-ki i- sa-ru bi-bil lib-bi ٹل it-ta-ma-a h qa-tu-uŠ-Šْ m Ku-ra-aŠŠar ali An- ٹل-an it-ta-bi ni-bi-it-su a-na ma-li-ku-tim kul-la-ta nap- h ar iz-zak-ra -[ma- Š u]

he searched; he looked through them and sought a righteous prince after his own heart, whom he took by the hand. He called Cyrus, king of Anshan, by name; he appointed him to lordship over the whole world.

در سراسر همه کشور ها به جست و جو پرداخت. به جست و جوی شاهی خوب که اورا با قلبی پاک ياری کند.  آنگاه او نام کورش، پادشاه "انشان" را بر خواند از او بنام پادشاه جهان ياد کرد.

mâtQu-ti-i gi-mir Um-man Man-da ْ-ka-an-ni- sa a-na s e-pi-su ni se sal-mat qaqqadudusa ْ- Š ل-ak-Ši-du ka-ta-a-Šu

The land of Qutu, all the Umman-manda, he cast down at his feet. The black-headed people, whom he gave his hands to conquer,

او تمام سرزمين "گوتو (ی)" و همه مردمان ماد را به فرمانبرداری کوروش در آورد. کورش با هر "سياه سر"  در سرزمين خود (همه انسان ها) دادگرانه رفتار کردو


i-na ki-it-tim ْ mi-Š a-ru iŠ-te-ni-'e-Ši-na-a-tim iluMarduk belu rabu ta-ru-ْ niŠ e- su ip-Še-e-ti ٹل dam-qa-a-ta ù lib-ba-Šْ i-Šل-ra ha-di-i s ip-pa-al-li-is

he took them in justice and righteousness. Marduk, the great lord, looked joyously on the caring for his people, on his pious works and his righteous heart.

کورش کشور را با راستی و داد اداره ميکرد. مردوک، خدای بزرگ با شادی از کردار نيک و انديشه نيک اين پشتيبان مردم خرسند بود.


a-na ali- Bab-ilani ki a-la-ak-Šْ ik-bi ْ- Š a-as-bi-it-su-ma har-ra-nu Babili ki-ma ib-ri ْ tap-pi-e it-tal-la-ka i-da-a-Šu

To his city, Babylon, he caused him to go; he made him take the road to Babylon, going as a friend and companion at his side.

بنا بر اين، او کورش را بر انگيخت تا راه بابل را در پيش گيرد، در حاليکه خودش هم چون ياوری راستين دوشادوش او گام بر ميداشت.


um-ma-ni-Šu rap- sa-a-tim ٹل ki-ma me-e nari la &uacute-ta-ad-du-ْ ni-ba-Š&uacute-un kakke-Š ْ-nu sa-an-du-ma i-Šل-ad-di- ha i-da-a-

His numerous troops, in unknown numbers, like the waters of a river, marched armed at his side.

لشکر پر شمار او که هم چون آب رودخانه شمارش نا پذير بود، آراسته به انواع جنگ ابزار ها در کنار او ره ميسپردند

ba-lu qab-li ù ta-ha-zi ْ- se-ri-ba-aٹ ki-rib Babili ala- Bab-ilaniki i-ti-ir i-na s ap-Šل-ki m, iluNabu-na'id sarru la pa-li-hi-Š ْ ْ-ma-al-la-a qa-tu-u s- su

Without battle and conflict, he permitted him to enter Babylon. He spared his city, Babylon, a calamity. Nabonidus, the king, who did not fear him, he delivered into his hand.

مردوک مقدر کرد تا کورش بدون جنگ و خونريزی به شهر بابل وارد شود. او بابل را از هر بلائی ايمن داشت. او "نبونيد" شاه را که ترسی بخود راه نميداد را به سرزمين خويش آورد.


niŠe Babili ka-li- sْ-nu nap-har mâts ْ-me-ri u Ak-ka-diki ru-bi-e ù Š ak-ka-nak-ka ٹل-pal-Š ْ ik-mi-sa ْ-na-aŠi-qu se-pu-u s- s ih-du-ْ a-na s arru-ْ-ti- im-mi-ru pa-nu-uŠ - -un

All the people of Babylon, Sumer, and Akkad, princes and governors, fell down before him and kissed his feet. They rejoiced in his sovereignty; their faces shone.

تمام مردم بابل، سراسر سرزمين سومر  و اکاد  و همه شاهزادگان و فرمانروايان محلی، فرمان کورش را پذيرفتند. از پادشاهی او شادمان شدند و با چهره های درخشان به پای اوافتاده او را بوسيدند.

be-lu ٹل i-na tu-kul-ti- ٹل ْ-bal-li-tu mi-tu-ta-an i-na bu-ta-qu ْ pa-ki-e ig-mi-lu kul-la-ta-an ta-bi-iŠ ik-ta-ar-ra-bu- su iŠ-tam-ma-ru zi-ki-ir-Š ْ

The lord, who by his power brings the dead to life, who amid destruction and injury had protected them, they joyously blessed him, honoring his name.

ايزدی که با قدرت خويش مرده را زنده ميکند، سروری را شادباش گفتند که به ياری او از چنگال مرگ وغم رهائی يافتند و به زندگی بازگشتند. همه ايزدان او را ستودند و نامش را گرامی داشتند

a-na-ku mKu-ra-aŠ sar kiŠ-Š at ٹarru rabu ٹarru dan-nu s ar Babili sar mât s ْ-me-ri ْ Ak-ka-di sar kib-ra-a-ti ir-bit-tim

I am Cyrus, king of the world, the great king, the powerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the world,

منم کورش شاه جهان، شاه بزرگ، شاه قدرتمند، شاه دادگر، شاه بابل، شاه سومر و اکاد، شاه  يک چهارم از جهان

mar mKa-am-bu-zi-ia sarru rabu sar alu An-Š ل-an mar mari mKu-ra-aŠ sarru rabu sar alu An-Š ل-an ŠA.BAL.BAL m s i-iŠ-pi-iŠ s arru rabu ٹar alu An-Š a-an

son of Cambyses, the great king, king of the city of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, the great king, king of the city of Anshan; great-grandson of Teispes, the great king, king of the city of Anshan;

پسر کمبوجيا، شاه بزرگ، شاه انشان، نوه کورش، شاه بزرگ، شاه انشان، نبيره چيش پيش، شاه بزرگ، شاه انشان.


ziru da-ru-ْ sa sarru-ْ-tu sa iluBel u ilu Nabu ir-a-mu pa-la-a-Š ْ a-na tu-ub lib-bi- sْ-nu i h-si-ha ٹarru-ut-su e-nu-ma a-na ki-rib Babili e-ru-bu sa-li-mi-i s

eternal seed of royalty whose rule Bel and Nabu love, in whose administration they rejoice in their heart. When I made my triumphal entrance into Babylon,

از دودمانی که هميشه شاه بوده اند و فرمانروائی اش را "بل" (خدا) و "نبو" گرامی ميدارند و با خرسندی قلبی، پادشاهی او را خواهانند؛ آنگاه که بدون جنگ و پيکار وارد بابل شدم....

i-na ul-si ù ri- Š ل-a-tim i-na ekal ma-al-ki ar-ma-a Š ْ-bat be-lu-tim iluMarduk belu rabu lib-bi ri-it-pa- Š ْ ٹل mare Babili ْ . . . an-ni-ma û-mi- sam a-Š e-'-a pa-la-ah-  s

I took up my lordly residence in the royal palace with joy and rejoicing; Marduk, the great lord, moved the noble heart of the residents of Babylon to me, while I gave daily attention to his worship.

همه مردم گام های مرا با شادمانی پذيرفتند. در بارگاه پادشاهان بابل بر تخت شهرياری نشستم. مردوک دل های پاک مردم بابل را متوجه من کرد.... زيرا من او را ارجمند و گرامی داشتم.


um-ma-ni-ia rap-sa-tim i-na ki-rib Babili i-Šل-ad-di-ha sْ-ul-ma-niٹ nap-har mat [ su-me-ri] ù Akkadiki mu-gal-[l]i-tim ul ْ- sar-si

My numerous troops marched peacefully into Babylon. In all Sumer and Akkad I permitted no enemy to enter.

ارتش بزرگ من به آرامی وارد بابل شد. به تمام سومر و آکاد نگذاشتم رنج و آزاری به مردم اين شهر و اين سرزمين وارد آيد. دشمن بر آنان وارد شود.


dannat Babili ù kul-lat ma-ha-zi- su i-na sà-li-im-tim a Š -te-'-e mare Babi[li . . .] ki ma-la lib-[. . .]-ma ab- Š a-a-ni la si-ma-ti-Šu-nu s ْ-bat-su-un

The needs of Babylon and of all its cities I gladly attended to. The people of Babylon [and . . . ], and the shameful yoke was removed from them. Their dwellings,

وضع داخلی بابل و جايگاه های مقدسش قلب مرا تکان داد... و تخم نفاق از بين آنان برداشته شد. دوباره خانه های آنان


an-hu-ut-su-un ْ-pa-a Š -si-ha ْ-Š ل-ap-ti-ir sa-ar-ba- su-nu a-na ip- se-e-ti-[ia] iluMarduk belu rabu ْ-ih-di-e-ma

which had fallen, I restored. I cleared out their ruins. Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced in my pious deeds, and

 که در هم کوبيده شده بود، را ساختم وبرای صلح کوشيدم. مردوک خدای بزرگ از کار نيک و انديشه نيک من شادمان شد و

a-na ia-a-ti mKu-ra-a ssarru pa-li-ih u ù mKa-am-bu-zi-ia mari si-it lib-bi-[ia ù a]-na nap- har um-ma-ni-ia

graciously blessed me, Cyrus, the king who worships him, and Cambyses, my own son, and all my troops,

با عزت مرا  ستود، کورش، شاه  که او را که ستايشش ميکنم و کمبوجيا، پسرم و تمام نيرو های من.


da-am-ki-iŠ ik-ru-ub-ma i-na sa-lim-tim ma-har-Š a ta-bi-iŠ ni-it-ta-['-id i-lu-ti- su] sir-ti nap-har ٹarri a- ٹi-ib parakke

while we, before him, joyously praised his exalted godhead. All the kings dwelling in palaces,

در جائيکه همه ما با شادمانی او را ستوديم و سربلندش نمودیم. تمام شاهان بر اورنگ پادشاهی تکيه زدند .


sa ka-li-i s kib-ra-a-ta iŠ-tu tam-tim e-li-tim a-di tam-tim sap-li-tim a-si-ib kul-[. . . .] sar-ra-ni mati A-mur-ri-i a- si-ib kuŠ-ta-ri ka-li-Š u-un

of all the quarters of the earth, from the Upper to the Lower sea dwelling [ . . . ] all the kings of the Westland dwelling in tents

همه پادشاهان سرزمين های جهان، از دريای بالا تا دريای پائين (دريای مديترانه تا خليج پارس) همه مردم سرزمين های دور دست، همه پادشاهان، "آموری"، همه چادر نشينان،


bi-lat-su-nu ka-bi-it-tim ْ-bi-lu-nim-ma ki-ir-ba Babili ْ-na-aŠ-Š i-qu se-pu-ْ-a iŠ-tu [. . . .] a-di alu A ssurki ù suanki

brought me their heavy tribute, and in Babylon kissed my feet. From [ . . . ] to Asshur and Susa,

مرا خراج گذاردند و در بابل بر من بوسه زدند. از .... تا آشور و شوش.


A-ga-deki mâtu E Š -nu-nak aluZa-am-ba-an aluMe-tْr-nu Deriki a-di pa-at mât Qu-ti-i ma-ha-za [ ٹل e-bir]-ti nâruDiqlat s ل i s-tu ap-na-ma na-du-ْ sْ-bat-su-un

Agade, Eshnunak, Zamban, Meturnu, Deri, with the territory of the land of Qutu, the cities on the other side of the Tigris, whose sites were of ancient foundation—

من شهر های "آگاده"، "اشنونا"، "زمبان"، "متورنو"، "ديری"، سرزمين گوتيان و همچنين شهر های آن سوی دجله که  سرزمين باستانی 


ilâni a-si-ib lib-bi- su-nu a-na aŠ-ri-Šْ-nu ْ-tir-ma ْ-sar-ma-a Š ْ-bat da-er-a-ta kul-lat niŠe- su-nu ْ-pa-ah -hi-ra-am-ma ْ-te-ir da-لd-mi- su-un

the gods, who resided in them, I brought back to their places, and caused them to dwell in a residence for all time

خدايان بودند، در آن بسر ميبردند و ويران شده بود را از نو ساختم، و ساکنان آنان را به محل اقامتشان برگرداندم.

ù ilâni mât s-me-ri ù Akkadikis ل m, iluNabu-na'id a-na ug-ga-tim bel ilâni ْ- se-ri-bi a-na ki-rib Babili i-na ki-bi-ti iluMarduk belu rabû i-na s ل-li-im-tim

And the gods of Sumer and Akkad—whom Nabonidus, to the anger of the lord of the gods, had brought into Babylon—by the command of Marduk, the great lord,

همچنين پيکره خدايان سومر و اکاد را که نبونيد بدون واهمه از خدای بزرگ به بابل آورده بود، به خشنودی مردوک فرمانروای بزرگ،


i-na maŠ-ta-ki- su-nu ْ-se-si-ib sْ-ba-at tu-ub lib-bi kul-la-ta ilâni s a ْ-se-ri-bi a-na ki-ir-bi ma-ha-zi- su-un

I caused them to take up their dwelling in residences that gladdened the heart. May all the gods, whom I brought into their cities,

 واداشتم به نيايشگاه های خودشان باز گردند، باشد که دل ها شاد گردد.  تا شايد خدايانی که آنان را به جايگاه های مقدس نخستينشان باز گردانم


û-mi-sa-am ma- h ar iluBel ù iluNabu sa a-ra-ku ume-ia li-ta-mu-ْ lit-taŠ-ka-ru a-ma-a-ta du-un-ki-ia ù a-na iluMarduk beli-ia li-iq-bu-ْ ٹs mKu-ra-aŠ sarri pa-li- hi-ka u mKa-am-bu-zi-ia mari- su

pray daily before Bêl and Nabû for long life for me, and may they speak a gracious word for me and say to Marduk, my lord, "May Cyrus, the king who worships you, and Cambyses, his son,

هرروز در پيشگاه "بل" و "نبو"  برايم خواستار زندگی بلند باشند. بشود که سخنان پر برکت و نيکوخواهانه برايم بيابند، بشود که آنان به خدای من، مردوک بگويند: «کورش شاه، پادشاهی است که ترا گرامی ميدارد و پسرش کمبوجيا».

da [ . . . ] ib-Su-nu lu-ْ [ . . . ] ka-li-Ši-na s ْ-ub-ti ni-ih-tim ْ-Se- Si-ib [ . . . ] paspase u TU.KIR.HU
[ . . . ]

their [ . . . ] I permitted all to dwell in peace [ . . . ]

بيگمان در آرزو های سازندگی، همگی مردم بابل پادشاه را گرامی داشتند و من برای همه مردم جامعه ای آرام مهيا ساختم و صلح و آرامش را به تمامی مردم اعطا کردم.


ويدئویی از زبان سخنگوی وزارت امور خارجه انگلستان

All human beings are in truth akin,
All in creation share one origin.
When fate allots a member pangs and pains,
No ease for other members then remains.
If, unperturbed, another`s grief canst scan,
Thou are not worthy of the name of man.
"Saadi - Iranian Poet - 1184-1291"
This poem, became motto of the United Nation and appears at its entrance.

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